EEG-Validated Photobiomodulation Treatment of Dementia-Case Study

Sensors (Basel). 2022 Oct 5;22(19):7555. doi: 10.3390/s22197555.


In this article, we perform a case study of the impact of photobiomodulation (PBM) on brain power spectrum and connectivity in an elderly person with a Self Administered Gerocognitive Exam (SAGE) score indicating probable memory and thinking disorder. First, we designed and realized the prototype of a near-infrared (NIR) device for PBM. Analysing the alpha band of the power spectrum, we found a positive long-term effect in nine out of sixteen electrodes in the eyes-open condition (OE) and in twelve out of sixteen electrodes in the eyes-closed condition (CE), while in the theta band, a positive long-term effect was found in nine out of sixteen electrodes for OE and seven out of sixteen electrodes for CE. When considering the theta-alpha ratio (TAR), the positive long-term effect is found on thirteen of sixteen electrodes for OE and on fourteen of sixteen electrodes for CE. A connectivity analysis using the imaginary component of the complex Pearson correlation coefficient (imCPCC) was also performed, and a global efficiency measure based on connectivity matrices with thresholds was calculated. The global efficiency calculated for the long-term effect was higher than before stimulation by a factor of 5.24 for the OE condition and by a factor of 1.25 for the CE condition. This case study suggests that PBM could have positive effects on improving desired brain activity, measured as improvement in power spectrum and connectivity measures in theta and alpha bands, for elderly people with memory and thinking disorders.

Keywords: brain connectivity analysis; near-infrared stimulation; photobiomodulation; power spectrum analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Brain Mapping
  • Brain* / physiology
  • Dementia* / therapy
  • Electroencephalography
  • Humans