High resolution TCSPC imaging of diffuse light with a one-dimensional SPAD array scanning system

Opt Express. 2022 Jul 18;30(15):27926-27937. doi: 10.1364/OE.461334.


We report a time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) imaging system based on a line-scanning architecture. The system benefits from the high fill-factor, active area, and large dimension of an advanced CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array line-sensor. A two-dimensional image is constructed using a moving mirror to scan the line-sensor field-of-view (FOV) across the target, to enable the efficient acquisition of a two-dimensional 0.26 Mpixel TCSPC image. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system for TCSPC imaging and locating objects obscured in scattering media - specifically to locate a series of discrete point sources of light along an optical fibre submerged in a highly scattering solution. We demonstrate that by selectively imaging using early arriving photons which have undergone less scattering than later arriving photons, our TCSPC imaging system is able to locate the position of discrete point sources of light than a non-time-resolved imaging system.