The Molecular Mechanisms of Defective Copper Metabolism in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022 Oct 4;2022:5418376. doi: 10.1155/2022/5418376. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Copper is an essential trace metal element that significantly affects human physiology and pathology by regulating various important biological processes, including mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, connective tissue crosslinking, and antioxidant defense. Copper level has been proved to be closely related to the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Copper deficiency can induce cardiac hypertrophy and aggravate cardiomyopathy, while copper excess can mediate various types of cell death, such as autophagy, apoptosis, cuproptosis, pyroptosis, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Both copper excess and copper deficiency lead to redox imbalance, activate inflammatory response, and aggravate diabetic cardiomyopathy. This defective copper metabolism suggests a specific metabolic pattern of copper in diabetes and a specific role in the pathogenesis and progression of DCM. This review is aimed at providing a timely summary of the effects of defective copper homeostasis on DCM and discussing potential underlying molecular mechanisms.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants
  • Cardiomegaly / complications
  • Copper / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Diabetic Cardiomyopathies* / metabolism
  • Fibrosis
  • Humans

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Copper