The gut microbiome and allergic rhinitis; refocusing on the role of probiotics as a treatment option

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2023 Feb;280(2):511-517. doi: 10.1007/s00405-022-07694-z. Epub 2022 Oct 14.


Introduction: In the industrialized world, the incidence of Allergic rhinitis (AR), often known as hay fever, and other allergic disorders continues to grow. Recent studies have suggested environmental variables such as bacterial exposures as a potential reason for the rising prevalence of AR. With breakthroughs in our abilities to research the complex crosstalk of bacteria, the gut microbiomes' effect on human development, nutritional requirements, and immunologic disorders has become apparent METHODS: Three search engines, including Scopus, Medline, and PubMed, were searched for related published articles up to and including 1st July 2022.

Results: Several studies have investigated links between commensal microbiome alterations and the development of atopic diseases such as asthma and AR. Besides, studies using probiotics for treating AR suggest that they may alleviate symptoms and improve patient's quality of life.

Conclusion: Research on probiotics and synbiotics for AR suggests they may improve symptoms, quality of life, and laboratory indicators. A better treatment strategy with advantages for patients may be achieved using probiotics, but only if more detailed in vitro and in vivo investigations are conducted with more participants.

Keywords: Dysbiosis; Gut flora; Microbiota; Rhinitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Humans
  • Probiotics* / therapeutic use
  • Quality of Life
  • Rhinitis, Allergic* / diagnosis
  • Rhinitis, Allergic* / therapy
  • Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal*