An Evaluation of an Enhanced Model of Integrating Family Planning Into HIV Treatment Services in Zambia, April 2018-June 2019

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2023 Feb 1;92(2):134-143. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000003111.


Background: We designed and implemented an enhanced model of integrating family planning (FP) into existing HIV treatment services at 6 health facilities in Lusaka, Zambia.

Methods: The enhanced model included improving FP documentation within HIV monitoring systems, training HIV providers in FP services, offering contraceptives within the HIV clinic, and facilitated referral to community-based distributors. Independent samples of women living with HIV (WLHIV) aged ≥16 years were interviewed before and after intervention and their clinical data abstracted from medical charts. Logistic regression models were used to assess differences in key outcomes between the 2 periods.

Results: A total of 629 WLHIV were interviewed preintervention and 684 postintervention. Current FP use increased from 35% to 49% comparing the pre- and postintervention periods ( P = 0.0025). Increased use was seen for injectables (15% vs. 25%, P < 0.0001) and implants (5% vs. 8%, P > 0.05) but not for pills (10% vs. 8%, P < 0.05) or intrauterine devices (1% vs. 1%, P > 0.05). Dual method use (contraceptive + barrier method) increased from 8% to 18% ( P = 0.0003), whereas unmet need for FP decreased from 59% to 46% ( P = 0.0003). Receipt of safer conception counseling increased from 27% to 39% ( P < 0.0001). The estimated total intervention cost was $83,293 (2018 USD).

Conclusions: Our model of FP/HIV integration significantly increased the number of WLHIV reporting current FP and dual method use, a met need for FP, and safer conception counseling. These results support continued efforts to integrate FP and HIV services to improve women's access to sexual and reproductive health services.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Contraceptive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Family Planning Services* / methods
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Sex Education
  • Zambia


  • Contraceptive Agents