To analyze the effect of filtration in glaucoma surgery, XEN versus trabeculectomy, on the vessel area density (VAD) of the macular, papillary and peripapillary regions using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). This prospective cohort study analyzes the vascular architecture of 47 eyes of 45 patients after two different filtrating surgery procedures (XEN stent and trabeculectomy (TE)) using the OCT-A. Participants who had an outsourced medical anti-glaucoma therapy received filtrating surgery in a 2:1 (XEN: TE) ratio. The primary outcome measurements were changes in the VAD in various layers of retinal perfusion and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Both interventions achieved a significant postoperative reduction in IOP (XEN 17.6 ± 3.8-13.7 ± 3.8 mmHg; TE 21.2 ± 5.4-8.8 ± 2.6 mmHg). VAD values did not change significantly after filtrating surgery. Comparing both procedures, a significantly higher VAD for patients treated with TE was seen for the superficial vessel complex (SVC) 375 µm and 750 µm (p = 0.011, p = 0.017), deep vessel complex (DVC) 375 µm (p = 0.029) and the optic disc (p = 0.028) after 6 months, while all other parameters did not differ significantly. In conclusion, VAD does not significantly improve after filtrating surgery in preoperative moderately IOP elevated eyes. The IOP lowering effect of filtrating surgery, however, can stabilize vascular parameters in all layers of perfusion.
© 2022. The Author(s).