Algae biomass contains various biological elements, including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, making it a viable feedstock for manufacturing biofuels. However, the biggest obstacle to commercializing algal biofuels is their high production costs, primarily related to an algae culture. The extraction of additional high value added bioproducts from algal biomass is thus required to increase the economic viability of producing algae biofuel. This study aims to discuss the economic benefits of a zero-carbon economy and an environmentally sustainable algae resource in decarbonizing the environment through the manufacture of algal-based biofuels from algae biomass for a range of potential uses. In addition, research on the algae biorefineries, with an emphasis on case studies for various cultivation methods, as well as the commercialization of biofuel and bioenergy. Overall, the algal biorefinery offers fresh potential for synthesizing various products.
Keywords: Biorefinery; Carbon dioxide emission; Commercialization; Macroalgae; Microalgae.
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