Guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of hypolipidemia disorders

J Clin Lipidol. 2022 Nov-Dec;16(6):797-812. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2022.08.009. Epub 2022 Sep 29.


The Abetalipoproteinemia and Related Disorders Foundation was established in 2019 to provide guidance and support for the life-long management of inherited hypocholesterolemia disorders. Our mission is "to improve the lives of individuals and families affected by abetalipoproteinemia and related disorders". This review explains the molecular mechanisms behind the monogenic hypobetalipoproteinemia disorders and details their specific pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management throughout the lifespan. In this review, we focus on abetalipoproteinemia, homozygous hypobetalipoproteinemia and chylomicron retention disease; rare genetic conditions that manifest early in life and cause severe complications without appropriate treatment. Absent to low plasma lipid levels, in particular cholesterol and triglyceride, along with malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins are characteristic features of these diseases. We summarize the genetic basis of these disorders, provide guidance in their diagnosis and suggest treatment regimens including high dose fat-soluble vitamins as therapeutics. A section on preconception counseling and other special considerations pertaining to pregnancy is included. This information may be useful for patients, caregivers, physicians and insurance agencies involved in the management and support of affected individuals.

Keywords: Abetalipoproteinemia; Cholesterol; Chylomicron retention disease; Familial hypocholesterolemia; Fat-soluble vitamins; Hypobetalipoproteinemia; Lipids; Lipoproteins; Triglycerides.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abetalipoproteinemia* / diagnosis
  • Abetalipoproteinemia* / genetics
  • Abetalipoproteinemia* / therapy
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • Hypobetalipoproteinemias* / diagnosis
  • Hypobetalipoproteinemias* / genetics
  • Hypobetalipoproteinemias* / therapy
  • Lipid Metabolism Disorders*
  • Vitamins


  • Vitamins