Update in Cushing disease: What the neurosurgeon has to KNOW, on behalf of the EANS skull base section

Brain Spine. 2022 Aug 7:2:100917. doi: 10.1016/j.bas.2022.100917. eCollection 2022.


Introduction: Cushing's disease is a state of chronic and excessive cortisol levels caused by a pituitary adenoma.

Research question: CD is a complex entity and often entails difficulties in its diagnosis and management. For that reason, there are still controversial points to that respect. The aim of this consensus paper of the skull base section of the EANS is to review the main aspects of the disease a neurosurgeon has to know and also to offer updated recommendations on the controversial aspects of its management.

Material and methods: PUBMED database was used to search the most pertinent articles published on the last 5 years related with the management of CD. A summary of literature evidence was proposed for discussion within the EANS skull base section and other international experts.

Results: This article represents the consensual opinion of the task force regarding optimal management and surgical strategy in CD.

Discussion and conclusion: After discussion in the group several recommendations and suggestions were elaborated. Patients should be treated by an experienced multidisciplinary team. Accurate clinical, biochemical and radiological diagnosis is mandatory. The goal of treatment is the complete adenoma resection to achieve permanent remission. If this is not possible, the treatment aims to achieving eucortisolism. Radiation therapy is recommended to patients with CD when surgical options have been exhausted. All patients in remission should be tested all life-long.

Keywords: ACTH; Cushing disease; Hypercortisolism; Pituitary adenoma; Transsphenoidal adenomectomy.