The JAK/STAT axis is implicated in cancer, inflammation, and immunity. Numerous cytokines/growth factors affect JAK/STAT signaling. JAKs (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2) noncovalently associate with cytokine receptors, mediate receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and recruit ≥1 STAT proteins (STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, STAT5b, and STAT6). Tyrosine-phosphorylated STATs dimerize and are then transported into the nucleus to function as transcription factors. Signaling is attenuated by specific suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins, creating a negative feedback loop. Both germline mutations and polymorphisms of JAK family members correlate with specific diseases: Systemic lupus erythematosus (TYK2 polymorphisms); severe combined immunodeficiency (JAK3 mutations); pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (TYK2 mutations); and hereditary thrombocytosis (JAK2 mutations). Somatic gain-of-function JAK mutations mainly occur in hematologic malignancies, with the activating JAK2 V617F being a myeloproliferative disorder hallmark; it is also seen in clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential. Several T-cell malignancies, as well as B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia also harbor JAK family somatic alterations. On the other hand, JAK2 copy-number loss is associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance. JAK inhibitors (jakinibs) have been deployed in many conditions with JAK activation; they are approved in myeloproliferative disorders, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, atopic dermatitis, ulcerative colitis, graft-versus-host disease, alopecia areata, ankylosing spondylitis, and in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Clinical trials are investigating jakinibs in multiple other autoimmune/inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, dermatologic and neurologic improvements have been observed in children with Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (a genetic interferonopathy) treated with JAK inhibitors.
©2022 American Association for Cancer Research.