The role of exercise in the treatment of depression: biological underpinnings and clinical outcomes

Mol Psychiatry. 2023 Jan;28(1):298-328. doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01819-w. Epub 2022 Oct 17.


Globally, depression is a leading cause of disability and has remained so for decades. Antidepressant medications have suboptimal outcomes and are too frequently associated with side effects, highlighting the need for alternative treatment options. Although primarily known for its robust physical health benefits, exercise is increasingly recognized for its mental health and antidepressant benefits. Empirical evidence indicates that exercise is effective in treating individuals with depression; however, the mechanisms by which exercise exerts anti-depressant effects are not fully understood. Acute bouts of exercise have been shown to transiently modulate circulating levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and a variety of immuno-inflammatory mechanisms in clinical cohorts with depression. However, exercise training has not been demonstrated to consistently modulate such mechanisms, and evidence linking these putative mechanisms and reductions in depression is lacking. The complexity of the biological underpinnings of depression coupled with the intricate molecular cascade induced by exercise are significant obstacles in the attempt to disentangle exercise's effects on depression. Notwithstanding our limited understanding of these effects, clinical evidence uniformly argues for the use of exercise to treat depression. Regrettably, exercise remains underutilized despite being an accessible, low-cost alternative/adjunctive intervention that can simultaneously reduce depression and improve overall health. To address the gaps in our understanding of the clinical and molecular effects of exercise on depression, we propose a model that leverages systems biology and multidisciplinary team science with a large-scale public health investment. Until the science matches the scale of complexity and burden posed by depression, our ability to advance knowledge and treatment will continue to be plagued by fragmented, irreproducible mechanistic findings and no guidelines for standards of care.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antidepressive Agents / adverse effects
  • Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Depression* / psychology
  • Depression* / therapy
  • Exercise* / psychology
  • Humans
  • Mental Health


  • Antidepressive Agents