Orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic treatments in patients with ectodermal dysplasia: a systematic review

Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2022 Oct 17;17(1):376. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02533-0.


Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to determine the orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic treatments carried out in patients with ectodermal dysplasia to facilitate functional and aesthetic rehabilitation.

Methods: The systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis statement. We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo, LILACS, EBSCOhost and Embase databases up to 6 January 2022. We included articles describing patients with any type of ectodermal dysplasia who received orthodontic or dentofacial orthopedic treatment to facilitate functional and aesthetic oral rehabilitation. The search was not restricted by language or year of publication. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Quality Assessment Scale of the University of Adelaide for case series and case reports. The review was registered at the University of York Centre for reviews (CRD42021288030).

Results: Of the initial 403 studies found, 29 met the inclusion criteria. After applying the quality scale, 23 were left for review-21 case reports and 2 case series. The initial age of patients ranged from 34 months to 24 years. Thirteen studies were on hypohidrotic and/or anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, of which two were X-chromosome linked. In one study, the patient had Wiktop syndrome, and in nine the type of ectodermal dysplasia was not specified. The duration of treatment was 7 weeks to 10 years. The treatments described were: fixed orthodontic appliances or simple acrylic plates designed for tooth movement, including leveling and aligning, closing of diastemata, retraction of impacted teeth in the dental arch; clear aligners; fixed and/or removable appliances for the correction of skeletal and/or dentoalveolar relationships; palatal expanders in combination with face masks for orthopedic traction of the maxilla; and orthognathic surgery. Only three studies provided cephalometric data.

Conclusion: The level of evidence of the articles reviewed was low and most orthopedic and dentofacial orthodontic treatments described were focused on correcting dental malpositioning and jaw asymmetries and not on stimulating growth from an early age. Studies with greater scientific evidence are needed to determine the best treatment for these patients.

Keywords: Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia; Anodontia; Dentofacial orthopedic treatment; Ectodermal dysplasia; Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia; Hypodontia; Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia; Maxillary atrophy; Orthodontic treatment.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Ectodermal Dysplasia 1, Anhidrotic*
  • Ectodermal Dysplasia* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Tooth Movement Techniques / adverse effects