Rates of Intracoronary Imaging Optimization in Contemporary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Report From the BMC2 Registry

Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2022 Oct;15(10):e012182. doi: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.122.012182. Epub 2022 Oct 18.


Background: Intracoronary imaging (ICI) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves outcomes, yet hospital- and physician-level variabilities in ICI and its impact on ICI use in contemporary PCI remain unknown. This study was performed to evaluate hospital- and physician-level use of ICI to optimize PCI.

Methods: Using data from a large statewide registry, patients undergoing PCI between July 2019 and March 2021 were studied. The primary measure of interest was ICI (intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography) optimization during PCI. A fitted hierarchical Bayesian model identified variables independently associated with ICI optimization. The performing hospital and physician were included as random effects in the model.

Results: Among 48 872 PCIs, ICI optimization was performed in 8094 (16.6%). Median [interquartile range] hospital- and physician-level frequencies of ICI were 8.8% [3.1%, 16.0%] and 6.1% [1.1%, 25.0%], respectively. Bayesian modeling identified left main PCI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.41; 95% credible interval [3.82, 5.10]), proximal left anterior descending artery PCI (aOR, 2.28 [2.00, 2.59]), PCI for in-stent restenosis (aOR, 1.55 [1.40, 1.72]), and surgical consult prior to PCI (aOR, 1.21 [1.07, 1.37]) as independent predictors of ICI optimization. The hospital-level median odds ratio, an estimate of the contribution of inter-hospital variability in odds of ICI use, was 3.48 (2.64, 5.04). Physician-level median odds ratio was 3.81 (3.33, 4.45).

Conclusions: Substantial hospital- and physician-level variation in ICI was observed. Except for performance of left main PCI, the hospital and physician performing the PCI were more strongly associated with ICI optimization than any patient or procedural factors.

Keywords: hospitals; interventional ultrasonography; optical coherence tomography; percutaneous coronary intervention; physicians; registries.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bayes Theorem
  • Coronary Angiography / methods
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / surgery
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / adverse effects
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / methods
  • Registries
  • Treatment Outcome