Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor (TGCT) is a group of typically benign lesions arising from the synovium of joints, bursae and tendon sheaths. Depending on their growth pattern and clinical course, they are divided into localized and diffuse types. It is predominantly caused by a mutation in the stromal cells of the synovial membrane leading to overexpression of the colony stimulating factor 1 that recruits CSF1R-expressing cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage into the tumor mass. The lesions contain mainly histiocyte-like and synovial cells accompanied by varying numbers of multinucleated giant cells, mononuclear cells, foam cells, inflammatory cells and hemosiderin deposits. The gold standard for detect- ing and monitoring the disease is MRI, where the characteristic hemosiderin accumulation can be best appreciated, but it is a histological examination that is most conclusive. The main treatment is surgical resection of all pathological tissue, but radio- and chemotherapy are also viable options for certain groups of patients.
Keywords: PVNS; diagnosis; epidemiology; pigmented villonodular synovitis; tenosynovial giant cell tumor; treatment.