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Comparative Study
, 138 (3), 485-90

Comparison of Results and Morbidity of Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

Comparative Study

Comparison of Results and Morbidity of Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

J E Lingeman et al. J Urol.

Abstract

Two new therapies, percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, are revolutionizing the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi. We report the success and morbidity rates in 110 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and 982 patients treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Staghorn calculi were excluded from this series. The over-all success rate (free of stones plus small asymptomatic residual fragments) was comparable with both modalities (percutaneous nephrostolithotomy 98 per cent and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy 95 per cent), although the presence of residual fragments was more common in kidneys treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (24 versus 7 per cent). Patient morbidity as measured by temperature elevation, length of postoperative stay, pain and blood loss was significantly less (p less than 0.05) with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy than with percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. Re-treatment rates were similar with both procedures, and tended to increase in relation to increasing stone size and stone number. Post-treatment ancillary procedures (cystoscopy and stone manipulation, and percutaneous nephrostomy) were used more frequently with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Because of its efficacy and low morbidity, we conclude that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the treatment of choice for upper urinary tract calculi less than 2 cm. in diameter. However, percutaneous nephrostolithotomy will continue to have a primary role in the management of larger stones and cystine stones, and it will be used as a secondary procedure after unsuccessful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatments. In addition, because of the complimentary nature of these 2 new technologies certain complex stones, such as staghorn calculi, may be handled best by a combination of the 2 techniques.

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