Intraframe motion blurring, as a major challenge in free-breathing dynamic MRI, can be reduced if high temporal resolution can be achieved. To address this challenge, this work proposes a highly accelerated 4D (3D + time) dynamic MRI framework with subsecond temporal resolution that does not require explicit motion compensation. The method combines standard stack-of-stars golden-angle radial sampling and tailored GRASP-Pro (Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel imaging with imProved performance) reconstruction. Specifically, 4D dynamic MRI acquisition is performed continuously without motion gating or sorting. The k-space centers in stack-of-stars radial data are organized to guide estimation of a temporal basis, with which GRASP-Pro reconstruction is employed to enforce joint low-rank subspace and sparsity constraints. This new basis estimation strategy is the new feature proposed for subspace-based reconstruction in this work to achieve high temporal resolution (e.g., subsecond/3D volume). It does not require sequence modification to acquire additional navigation data, it is compatible with commercially available stack-of-stars sequences, and it does not need an intermediate reconstruction step. The proposed 4D dynamic MRI approach was tested in abdominal motion phantom, free-breathing abdominal MRI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). Our results have shown that GRASP-Pro reconstruction with the new basis estimation strategy enables highly-accelerated 4D dynamic imaging at subsecond temporal resolution (with five spokes or less for each dynamic frame per image slice) for both free-breathing non-DCE-MRI and DCE-MRI. In the abdominal phantom, better image quality with lower root mean square error and higher structural similarity index was achieved using GRASP-Pro compared with standard GRASP. With the ability to acquire each 3D image in less than 1 s, intraframe respiratory blurring can be intrinsically reduced for body applications with our approach, which eliminates the need for explicit motion detection and motion compensation.
Keywords: DCE-MRI; GRASP; GRASP-Pro; dynamic MRI; motion correction; radial sampling; stack-of-stars; subspace.
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.