TMP195 Exerts Antitumor Effects on Colorectal Cancer by Promoting M1 Macrophages Polarization

Int J Biol Sci. 2022 Sep 6;18(15):5653-5666. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.73264. eCollection 2022.


Studies have shown that epigenetic enzymes such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) are closely related to cancers and that several HDAC inhibitors exert antitumor effects. Studies have further suggested that class IIa HDAC inhibitors are related to immune functions, including immune responses and the expression of chemokines and complement pathway components. TMP195, a selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor, has been reported to be effective against breast cancer. However, the role and mechanism of TMP195 in colorectal cancer remain unknown. In this study, we found that TMP195 significantly reduced the tumor burden in two mouse models of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) and subcutaneous tumor. Mechanistically, TMP195 decreased the proportion of total macrophages but increased the proportion of M1 macrophages by promoting polarization, resulting in the increased release of inflammatory cytokines. TMP195 had no direct effect on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells, and its antitumor effect on the colorectal cancer disappeared when macrophages were partly depleted by clodronate liposomes. In addition, TMP195 enhanced the efficacy of PD-1 blockade. The present study revealed that the combination of TMP195 and PD-1 blockade may provide a therapeutic strategy for colorectal cancer.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer; HDAC; PD-1 blockade; TMP195; macrophage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Clodronic Acid / metabolism
  • Clodronic Acid / pharmacology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors* / pharmacology
  • Histone Deacetylases / metabolism
  • Liposomes / metabolism
  • Liposomes / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / metabolism


  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • TMP195
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
  • Clodronic Acid
  • Liposomes
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Cytokines