Coagulation parameters, platelet aggregation, and thromboxane production as well as metabolic parameters were measured in 31 diabetic patients, 12 without and 19 with clinically manifest late complications, and in 14 healthy control subjects. Spontaneous in vitro aggregation as well as ADP, collagen, and arachidonic acid induced aggregation were higher in both groups of diabetic patients, without an increase in thromboxane B2 production. In diabetic patients with late complications an increase in fibrinogen, fibrinogen cyanogen bromide peptide, factor VIII related antigen, C1-esterase inhibitor, and antithrombin III was observed in comparison to healthy subjects. Fibrinogen, C1-esterase inhibitor, and factor VIII related antigen were already elevated in diabetic patients without clinically manifest late vascular complications. No strict correlations were found between serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and glycosylated albumin, on the one hand, and coagulation promoting or inhibiting factors, aggregation or thromboxane B2 production, on the other, in either control or diabetic subjects. Also no correlations existed between the coagulation parameters and the aggregation results. In vitro incubation of pooled normal plasma with different glucose concentrations had no influence on the methods by which the coagulation parameters were measured. These data indicate that rather early in the diabetic state many changes take place in different phases of the thrombostatic process, all resulting in an increased hemostatic diathesis.