Trends and Clinical Characteristics of HIV and Cerebrovascular Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) Between 1990 and 2021

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2022 Dec;19(6):548-565. doi: 10.1007/s11904-022-00627-9. Epub 2022 Oct 20.


Purpose of the review: To describe trends and clinical characteristics of HIV and cerebrovascular disease between 1990 and 2021 in LMICs and identify the gaps in our understanding.

Recent findings: In the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) live longer and risk excess cerebrovascular events due to ageing and HIV-driven factors. Despite the highest burden of HIV infection in low-to-middle income countries, there is underreporting in the literature of cerebrovascular events in this population. We systematically reviewed published literature for primary clinical studies in adult PLWH and cerebrovascular disease in LMICs. The clinical phenotype of cerebrovascular disease among PLWH over the last three decades in LMICs has evolved and transitioned to an older group with overlapping cerebrovascular risk factors. There is an important need to increase research in this population and standardise reporting to facilitate understanding, guide development of appropriate interventions, and evaluate their impact.

Keywords: ART; Cerebrovascular disease; Cognitive impairment; HIV; Stroke.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cerebrovascular Disorders* / epidemiology
  • Developing Countries
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors