Occurrence of gastric cancer in patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Gastrointest Endosc. 2023 Mar;97(3):407-414.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2022.10.026. Epub 2022 Oct 18.


Background and aims: The true rate of gastric cancer (GC) in juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is unknown because of its rarity and ascertainment bias in published literature. To better assess this, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched for the key words juvenile polyposis syndrome, juvenile polyps, stomach cancer, GC, SMAD4, BMPR1A, hamartomatous polyposis syndrome, hamartomas, and hereditary cancers for studies reporting upper GI manifestations in JPS. The primary outcome was the reported occurrence of GC in JPS. We then compared GC occurrence based on the presence or absence of pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) and in untested patients.

Results: Eleven studies including 637 patients were included. The pooled occurrence of GC was 3.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-5.2; I2 = 12.3%) at a median age of 42.5 years (range, 15-57.6). The pooled occurrence of GC in patients with SMAD4 PGV was 10.1% (95% CI, 3.2-16.8%; I2 = 54.7%). GC was reported in only 1 BMPR1A PGV carrier and was not reported in patients without an identifiable PGV. In patients with prior germline testing, the risk of GC was higher in SMAD4 PGV carriers (odds ratio, 11.6; 95% CI, 4.6-29.4; I2 = 18.3%) compared with patients without SMAD4 PGV. In JPS patients with unknown status of germline testing, pooled occurrence of GC was 7.5% (95% CI, 0-15.5). There was an overall moderate risk of bias in the studies.

Conclusions: GC is highest in SMAD4-associated JPS and was not reported in patients without identifiable PGVs. The value of GC surveillance in BMPR1A PGV carriers and JPS patients without an identifiable PGV is questionable. Germline testing should be performed in all JPS patients to inform GC risk discussion and utility of surveillance.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Hamartoma*
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Polyposis* / complications
  • Intestinal Polyposis* / genetics
  • Intestinal Polyps
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary* / epidemiology
  • Smad4 Protein / genetics
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Young Adult


  • Smad4 Protein

Supplementary concepts

  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome