Canadian Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Cohort Study: 3-Year Outcomes

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 Oct 25;80(17):1585-1597. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.08.759.


Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an important cause of myocardial infarction (MI) in young to middle-aged women.

Objectives: We aim to define the long-term natural history of SCAD.

Methods: We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with nonatherosclerotic SCAD presenting acutely from 22 North American centers. We recorded baseline demographics, in-hospital characteristics, precipitating and predisposing conditions, angiographic features (adjudicated), in-hospital and 3-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed.

Results: We prospectively enrolled 750 consecutive patients with SCAD from June 2014 to June 2018. Mean age was 51.7 ± 10.5 years, 88.5% were women (55.0% postmenopausal); 31.3% presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and 68.3% with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Precipitating emotional stressor was reported in 50.3%, and physical stressor in 28.9%. Predisposing conditions included fibromuscular dysplasia in 42.9% (56.4% in those with complete screening), peripartum state 4.5%, and genetic disorders 1.6%. Most patients were treated conservatively (84.3%); 14.1% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 0.7% coronary artery bypass graft. At 3.0-year median follow-up, mortality was 0.8%, recurrent MI 9.9% (extension of previous SCAD 3.5%, de novo recurrent SCAD 2.4%, iatrogenic dissection 1.9%), with overall MACE 14.0%. Presence of genetic disorders, peripartum SCAD, and extracoronary fibromuscular dysplasia were independent predictors of 3-year MACE. Patients who underwent PCI at index hospitalization had similar postdischarge MACE compared with no PCI. At 3 years, 80.0% remained on aspirin and 73.5% on beta-blockade.

Conclusions: Long-term mortality and de novo recurrent SCAD was low in our contemporary large SCAD cohort that included low revascularization rate and high use of beta-blockade and aspirin. Genetic disorders, extracoronary fibromuscular dysplasia, and peripartum SCAD were independent predictors of long-term MACE.

Keywords: myocardial infarction; spontaneous coronary artery dissection; women.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aftercare
  • Aspirin
  • Canada
  • Cohort Studies
  • Coronary Angiography / adverse effects
  • Coronary Vessels
  • Female
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia* / complications
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction* / etiology
  • Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction* / complications
  • Patient Discharge
  • Prospective Studies


  • Aspirin

Supplementary concepts

  • Coronary Artery Dissection, Spontaneous