Two novel peptides which exert a potent stimulant effect on rat uterus smooth muscle have recently been identified in porcine spinal cord. These peptides designated neuromedin U-8 and U-25 have been reported to exert a hypertensive effect in rats. But further biological activities are not known. In the present study, the effect of these peptides on blood flow in portal vein, superior mesenteric artery and pancreatic tissue and on blood pressure were examined in dogs, utilizing recently developed ultrasonic transit time volume flow meter and laser Doppler flow meter. Neuromedin Us potently reduced blood flow in superior mesenteric artery. The minimum reductions could be observed even at very small doses of neuromedin U-25 (32 fmol/kg) and U-8 (90 fmol/kg), while the maximal reductions of 48.4 and 51.0% were attained at the doses of 320 pmol/kg (U-25) and 900 pmol/kg (U-8), respectively. These peptides also reduced portal vein blood flow, and the maximal reductions of 42.1 and 37.2% were attained at the doses of 32 pmol/kg (U-25) and 90 pmol/kg (U-8), respectively. On the other hand, blood flow in pancreatic tissue increased slightly with the maximal increases of 13.8% at 3.2 pmol/kg (U-25) and 11.8% at 9 pmol/kg (U-8), respectively. The maximal increases of blood pressure were 5.2% at 320 pmol/kg (U-25) and 4.3% at 90 pmol/kg (U-8). Furthermore, neither neuromedin U-25 nor U-8 influenced the axillary artery blood flow, suggesting their selective effect on splanchnic blood flow. Because of the potent and probably selective activity on splanchnic circulation, neuromedin U-25 and U-8 may well be recognized as physiologically significant novel neuropeptides or hormones.