Objective: Individuals with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are at risk for protein-energy wasting (PEW). Inadequate dietary intake and altered anthropometrics are two criteria of the PEW diagnosis. This study explored whether individuals with ESKD on MHD meet the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) 2020 guidelines for nutritional adequacy on a dialysis treatment day (DD) and explored the relationship between dietary energy [DEI] and protein [DPI] intake and anthropometrics.
Methods: This was a secondary analysis of clinical and demographic data for 142 adults from the Rutgers Nutrition and Kidney Disease database. The study assessed the relationships between DEI, DPI, and anthropometrics, including body mass index (BMI), BMI category, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) using Pearson's or Spearman's correlation and one-way ANOVA.
Results: The sample had a median age of 55.7 years; 58% were male, 83.8% were Black/African American, with a median dialysis vintage of 42.0 months (e.g., 3.5 years). Seventy-five percent of the data sample were overweight or obese. The WHR was 1.0 ± 0.8 cm for males and 0.9 ± 0.1 for females. DEI and DPI on a DD did not meet the NKF-KDOQI 2020 guidelines. Median DEI was 17.6 ± 8.4 kcal/kg and DPI was 0.7 ± 0.4 g/kg. In the total sample, significant positive correlations were found between DEI (r = 0.74, P = 0.03) and DPI (r = 0.18, P = 0.037) and WHR. In females, a significant positive correlation was identified between DPI and WHR (r = 0.26, P = 0.046).
Conclusions: These findings suggest that the nutritional intake of individuals with ESKD receiving MHD is inadequate to meet NKF-KDOQI 2020 guidelines on a DD. WHR may be a useful tool to assess alterations in anthropometrics related to DEI or DPI in this population, but more research is warranted.
Keywords: Anthropometrics; Dietary intake; End-stage kidney disease; Hemodialysis; Protein-energy wasting.
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