Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Primary Biliary Cholangitis

Clin Liver Dis. 2022 Nov;26(4):691-704. doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2022.06.011.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is potentially fatal complication affecting patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). The incidence of HCC is 13 per 1000 person-years in patients with PBC cirrhosis, but much lower at 2.7 per 1000 person-years among patients with PBC without cirrhosis. Risk factors for the development of HCC in PBC include the presence of advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis and male sex, with some studies suggesting that treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and UDCA response may reduce risk.

Keywords: Autoimmune liver disease; Cirrhosis; Epidemiology; Primary liver cancer.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / etiology
  • Cholagogues and Choleretics / therapeutic use
  • Cholangitis*
  • Humans
  • Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary* / complications
  • Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary* / drug therapy
  • Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary* / epidemiology
  • Liver Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Liver Neoplasms* / etiology
  • Male
  • Ursodeoxycholic Acid / therapeutic use


  • Ursodeoxycholic Acid
  • Cholagogues and Choleretics