Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Dogs: Historical, Metabolic, Genetic, and Clinical Aspects

Top Companion Anim Med. 2022 Nov-Dec;51:100731. doi: 10.1016/j.tcam.2022.100731. Epub 2022 Oct 20.

Abstract

Inborn errors of metabolism are genetic disorders caused by a block in a metabolic pathway, affecting both humans and animals. Individually, they are rare diseases, but as a group they are relatively common. As most of them have recessive inheritance, a new case may seem like just a sporadic case. The high degree of inbreeding in dog breeds increases the frequency of heterozygotes in populations, maintaining mutations (variants) in healthy individuals and, consequently, increasing the risk of disease recurrence (homozygotes). General practitioners' familiarization with this subject is a significant factor in identifying new cases, contributing to increased knowledge about inborn errors of metabolism and their control. To help general practitioners, we use a clinical genetics approach covering key genetic, metabolic, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects, offering an overview that integrates knowledge about these diseases in dogs and humans.

Keywords: dog genetics; inborn errors; inherited metabolic diseases; metabolic pathways; metabolism.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dog Diseases* / genetics
  • Dog Diseases* / therapy
  • Dogs
  • Humans
  • Metabolism, Inborn Errors* / diagnosis
  • Metabolism, Inborn Errors* / genetics
  • Metabolism, Inborn Errors* / therapy
  • Metabolism, Inborn Errors* / veterinary