Global burden and temporal trends in incidence and mortality of oesophageal cancer

J Adv Res. 2022 Oct 20;S2090-1232(22)00236-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2022.10.007. Online ahead of print.


Introduction: Oesophageal cancer is a prevalent and deadly cancer around the world.

Objectives: We aimed to present a comprehensive analysis of the global geographic patterns and temporal trends in the mortality and incidence of oesophageal cancer.

Methods: The mortality and incidence data of oesophageal cancer in 2020 were obtained from the GLOBOCAN database. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database and the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5), we also retrieved the mortality and incidence age-standardized rates (ASRs) of oesophageal cancer. The average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) of mortality and incidence were calculated using the joinpoint regression analysis.

Results: Globally, 0.54 million deaths and 0.6 million new cases were identified in 2020. In the majority of countries of South America and Asia, the mortality and incidence trends have substantially decreased, but trends in European countries have varied. The prevalence in European nations varied, but the incidence in most other continents decreased dramatically. In terms of mortality, the global average rate was 5.6 per 100000, ranging from 16.7 (Malawi) to 0.28 (Belize). European countries varied in mortality, such as Norway (AAPC, male: 0.68; female: 0.89) and Ireland (AAPC, male: -0.96; female: -1.52). Most non-European countries saw large decreases in mortality, such as Singapore (AAPC, male: -4.78; female: -6.89). The elderly had more noticeable trends in mortality and incidence in most countries.

Conclusions: We have identified different trends in mortality and incidence among European countries, whereas declining trends were identified in most non-European countries. However, increasing trends were identified in specific subgroups of some countries, such as men in Thailand. For populations with rising mortality and incidence trends, more preventative efforts are required.

Keywords: ASR; Epidemiology; Oesophageal cancer; Trend analysis.