Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is often treated conservatively due to revascularization risks. Yet, an important number of SCAD patients have high acuity characteristics necessitating revascularization, with uncertain long-term outcomes.
Objectives: Document revascularization utilization and long-term outcomes in high acuity SCAD.
Methods: Prospective/retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to first SCAD event presenting directly to the Minneapolis Heart Institute 2002-2021, median follow-up 3.8 years.
Results: Among 139 patients (age 49 ± 12 years, 96% female), revascularization was performed in 60 (43%), utilizing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (n = 56, successful in 80%) or coronary artery bypass graft (n = 4). In the entire cohort, 90 (65%) unique patients had one or more high acuity characteristic: ST-elevation (38%), proximal dissection (38%), cardiogenic shock (6.5%), cardiac arrest (9.4%), left main dissection (6.5%), peripartum dissection (7.2%). High acuity patients accounted for 51 of 60 (85%) revascularizations. Revascularization rates were: ST-elevation (60%), proximal dissection (62%), cardiogenic shock (89%), cardiac arrest (62%), left main dissection (100%), peripartum dissection (70%). Survival was 97% (revascularized) vs 100% (nonrevascularized); p = 0.2. Adverse outcomes (revascularized vs. nonrevascularized) included recurrent AMI:16.7% versus 8.9%; p = 0.2, SCAD recurrence: 13.3% versus 6.3%; p = 0.1, stroke: 5% versus 2.5%; p = 0.44, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: 6.7% versus 6.3%; p > 0.9. Reintervention was necessary in 21% of PCI-treated patients.
Conclusions: High-acuity characteristics were present in nearly two-thirds of this SCAD cohort; the vast majority of revascularizations were performed in high-acuity patients. Despite high acuity, long-term survival was favorable in revascularized patients.
Keywords: SCAD; STEMI; cardiac arrest; cardiogenic shock; coronary dissection; left main dissection.
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