The clinical neurophysiology of COVID-19-direct infection, long-term sequelae and para-immunization responses: A literature review

Clin Neurophysiol Pract. 2023;8:3-11. doi: 10.1016/j.cnp.2022.09.005. Epub 2022 Oct 17.


The COVID-19 pandemic resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 virus is in its third year. There is continuously evolving information regarding its pathophysiology and its effects on the nervous system. Clinical neurophysiology techniques are commonly employed to assess for neuroanatomical localization and/or defining the spectrum of neurological illness. There is an evolving body of literature delineating the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the nervous system as well as para-immunization responses to vaccination against this virus. This review focuses on the use of neurophysiological diagnostic modalities in the evaluation of potential acute and long-term neurological complications in patients that experience direct infection with SARS-CoV-2 and analyzes those reports of para-immunization responses to vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The neurophysiological modalities to be discussed include electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials (EPs), nerve conduction studies and electromyography (EMG/NCV), autonomic function tests, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD).

Keywords: COVID-19; EEG; EMG; Evoked potentials; NCV; Neurophysiology.

Publication types

  • Review