Different environmental conditions can impact the burden of anemia and intestinal parasite infections in human and livestock populations. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of anemia and intestinal parasite infections in farmers, family members, and owned sheep in two geographic locations along the Senegal River in June (end of the dry season) and September (rainy season). In Diawara, the prevalence of anemia in humans was high in June (74%) and remained high in September (75%) (p = 0.91). The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections increased from 7% in June to 54% in September (p < 0.05). Anemia was associated with age (children) and sex (women) (p < 0.05); but not with a positive diagnosis of intestinal parasite infection (p = 0.73). In sheep, the prevalence of anemia increased from 43% in June to 73% in September (p < 0.05), and the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections increased from 75% in June to 100% in September (p < 0.05). A positive diagnosis of Haemonchus contortus was associated with anemia (p = 0.05) and loss of body weight (2.4 kg) (p = 0.08). In Mpal, similar anemia and parasite infection trends were observed in children and sheep. The persistent high prevalence of anemia, and the impact of the rainy season on the burden of intestinal parasite infections in farmers, family members, and owned sheep can justify a One Health approach, where Senegal's ministries of health and of agriculture share resources for implementation and evaluation of government program efforts to reduce anemia in children and women, as well as morbidity and mortality in owned livestock; particularly in remote areas where public health services and veterinary services are very limited.
Keywords: Humans; Intestinal parasites; Livestock; Senegal; anemia.
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