In Vitro and In Vivo Neuroprotective Effects of Sarcosine

Biomed Res Int. 2022 Oct 15:2022:5467498. doi: 10.1155/2022/5467498. eCollection 2022.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by behavioral and psychological symptoms in addition to cognitive impairment and loss of memory. The exact pathogenesis and genetic background of AD are unclear and there remains no effective treatment option. Sarcosine, an n-methyl derivative of glycine, showed a promising therapeutic strategy for some cognitive disorders. To our knowledge, the impacts of sarcosine supplementation against AD have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to determine the neuroprotective potential of sarcosine in in vitro and in vivo AD model. In vitro studies have demonstrated that sarcosine increased the percentage of viable cells against aluminum induced neurotoxicity. In AlCl3-induced rat model of AD, the level of antioxidant capacity was significantly decreased and expression levels of APP, BACE1, TNF-α, APH1A, and PSENEN genes were elevated compared to the control group. Additionally, histopathological examinations of the hippocampus of AlCl3-induced rat brains showed the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). However, the administration of sarcosine produced marked improvement and protection of AD-associated pathologies induced by AlCl3 in experimental rats. Therefore, this investigation may contribute to design novel therapeutic strategies using sarcosine for the management of AD pathologies.

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum / therapeutic use
  • Aluminum Chloride
  • Alzheimer Disease* / metabolism
  • Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases
  • Neuroprotective Agents* / pharmacology
  • Neuroprotective Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Sarcosine / pharmacology
  • Sarcosine / therapeutic use
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha


  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Aluminum Chloride
  • Sarcosine
  • Antioxidants
  • Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Aluminum
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases