Variation in Clinical Treatment and Outcomes by Race Among US Veterans Hospitalized With COVID-19

JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Oct 3;5(10):e2238507. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.38507.


Importance: Patients from racially and ethnically minoritized populations, such as Black and Hispanic patients, may be less likely to receive evidence-based COVID-19 treatments than White patients, contributing to adverse clinical outcomes.

Objective: To determine whether clinical treatments and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were associated with race.

Design, setting, and participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 130 Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) between March 1, 2020, and February 28, 2022, with a 60-day follow-up period until May 1, 2022. Participants included veterans hospitalized with COVID-19. Data were analyzed from May 6 to June 2, 2022.

Exposures: Self-reported race.

Main outcomes and measures: Clinical care processes (eg, intensive care unit [ICU] admission; organ support measures, including invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation; prone position therapy, and COVID-19-specific medical treatments) were quantified. Clinical outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, 60-day mortality, and 30-day readmissions. Outcomes were assessed with multivariable random effects logistic regression models to estimate the association of race with outcomes not attributable to known mediators, such as socioeconomic status and age, while adjusting for potential confounding between outcomes and mediators.

Results: A total of 43 222 veterans (12 135 Black veterans [28.1%]; 31 087 White veterans [71.9%]; 40 717 [94.2%] men) with a median (IQR) age of 71 (62-77) years who were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Controlling for site of treatment, Black patients were equally likely to be admitted to the ICU (4806 Black patients [39.6%] vs 13 427 White patients [43.2%]; within-center adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.02; P = .17). Two-thirds of patients treated with supplemental oxygen or noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation also received systemic steroids, but Black veterans were less likely to receive steroids (within-center aOR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P = .004; between-center aOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.96; P = .03). Similarly, Black patients were less likely to receive remdesivir (within-center aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95; P < .001; between-center aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.99; P = .02) or treatment with immunomodulatory drugs (within-center aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.87; P < .001). After adjusting for patient demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, severity of acute illness, and receipt of COVID-19-specific treatments, there was no association of Black race with hospital mortality (within-center aOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.86-1.10; P = .71) or 30-day readmission (within-center aOR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.04; P = .28).

Conclusions and relevance: These findings suggest that Black veterans hospitalized with COVID-19 were less likely to be treated with evidence-based COVID-19 treatments, including systemic steroids, remdesivir, and immunomodulatory drugs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • COVID-19* / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oxygen
  • Retrospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Veterans*


  • Oxygen