Hemorrhagic direct traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery: intraoperative management and endovascular treatment

Neurosurg Focus Video. 2020 Apr 1;2(2):V1. doi: 10.3171/2020.4.FocusVid.19918. eCollection 2020 Apr.


Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is a rare complication after transsphenoidal surgery with only 10 cases published (Ahuja et al., 1992; Cinar et al., 2013; Cossu et al., 2020; Dolenc et al., 1999; Kalia et al., 2009; Karaman et al., 2009; Kocer et al., 2002; Koitschev et al., 2006; Pigott et al., 1989; Takahashi et al., 1969). Intraoperative findings vary from unrecognized events to life-threatening hemorrhages. We provide a description of the management of an acute CCF occurring during sphenoidotomy in a patient with pituitary apoplexy. Osteotomy performed in the rostrum resulted in a fracture, which extended toward the intracavernous carotid artery. Bleeding was managed with mechanical compression. Endovascular treatment allowed closure of the fistula through transarterial coiling and glue. Arterial patency was preserved and the patient had no new neurological deficit. Drilling should be considered over osteotomy for the anterior sphenoidotomy. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/0Me23xIVeNI.

Keywords: carotid-cavernous fistula; endoscopy; endovascular treatment; transsphenoidal surgery; video.