Emergence of a febrile illness of unknown causes among the population and visitors of Upper Egypt

Pan Afr Med J. 2021 Dec 16;40(Suppl 2):3. doi: 10.11604/pamj.supp.2021.40.2.30988. eCollection 2021.


This is a fictional case study for training that encourages participants to interact and apply theory into practice. A febrile illness of unknown cause that occurred in Upper Egypt in 2002 was chosen for the events. The location of Aswan was selected to define the climate, topography, and location with the characteristics that support the events. Data obtained from applied research work in Egypt was included. The case study deals with the incidence of severe cases of fever of unknown origin accompanied by neurological and intestinal symptoms, as well as a high percentage of deaths. Most of the symptoms appear in people with direct contact with farm animals especially equines and birds, or those who were near waterways, either tourism workers or tourists. Most of the infected cases or deaths have accumulated in Aswan and some in the neighbouring governorates. This case study focusses on the steps taken during an outbreak investigation, and deals with investigative challenges as well as concepts of biosafety and biosecurity.

Keywords: Case study; biosafety; biosecurity; epidemiology; outbreak investigation; surveillance.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Containment of Biohazards*
  • Disease Outbreaks*
  • Egypt / epidemiology
  • Equidae
  • Horses
  • Incidence