Data on the genetic polymorphism of 27 Y-STR in Kazakhs of the Junior Zhuz has been presented and analyzed in relation to forensic features. A total of 464 representatives of the Western Kazakh tribes of Kazakhstan (Western Kazakhs, n = 405) and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan Kazakhs, n = 59) were examined by the Yfiler Plus set. The data are available in the YHRD under accession numbers YA006010 and YA006009. Genetic analysis (AMOVA and MDS) did not show significant differences between the two groups (Kazakhstan and Karakalpakstan Kazakhs) in terms of Y-chromosome diversity. Both groups are characterized by haplogroup C2a1a2 as a founder effect, which dominated two of the three tribes: Alimuly (67%), Baiuly (74.6%), and Zhetiru (25.8%). At the same time, the phylogenetic network for each tribe found its own clusters within C2a1a2. Western Kazakhs and Karakalpakstan Kazakhs present high values of unique haplotypes (84.44% and 96.61%), discrimination capacity (90.37% and 98.30%), and haplotype diversity (0.9991 and 0.9994). A set of 27 Y-STR loci distinguishes closely related individuals within the Western Kazakh tribes quite well. It is suitable for forensic application, and is also optimal for population genetics studies.
Keywords: Kazakh; Y-STR; central Asia; haplotype diversity; population genetics.