Non-Canonical Functions of Myeloperoxidase in Immune Regulation, Tissue Inflammation and Cancer

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Oct 14;23(20):12250. doi: 10.3390/ijms232012250.

Abstract

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is one of the most abundantly expressed proteins in neutrophils. It serves as a critical component of the antimicrobial defense system, facilitating microbial killing via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, emerging evidence indicates that in addition to the well-recognized canonical antimicrobial function of MPO, it can directly or indirectly impact immune cells and tissue responses in homeostatic and disease states. Here, we highlight the emerging non-canonical functions of MPO, including its impact on neutrophil longevity, activation and trafficking in inflammation, its interactions with other immune cells, and how these interactions shape disease outcomes. We further discuss MPO interactions with barrier forming endothelial and epithelial cells, specialized cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and its involvement in cancer progression. Such diverse function and the MPO association with numerous inflammatory disorders make it an attractive target for therapies aimed at resolving inflammation and limiting inflammation-associated tissue damage. However, while considering MPO inhibition as a potential therapy, one must account for the diverse impact of MPO activity on various cellular compartments both in health and disease.

Keywords: cancer; cell activation; endothelial cell; inflammation; neutrophil; reactive oxygen species; therapeutic; tissue injury; trafficking.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Neutrophils / metabolism
  • Peroxidase* / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism

Substances

  • Peroxidase
  • Reactive Oxygen Species