Treatment of Complex Two-Vessel Coronary Heart Disease with Single Left Internal Mammary Artery as T-Graft with Itself-A Retrospective Double Center Analysis of Short-Term Outcomes

Medicina (Kaunas). 2022 Oct 9;58(10):1415. doi: 10.3390/medicina58101415.


Background and Objectives: The strategy of revascularization may be constrained in patients with insufficient bypass grafts and with increased risk of wound healing disorders. Among those with complex left-sided double-vessel disease in whom a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), as well as the surgical procedure of minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting via left minithoracotomy (MICS CABG), is not a treatment option, CABG using the left internal mammary artery as a T-graft with itself may be an effective treatment strategy. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the data from patients treated in Cologne and Tuebingen from 2019 to 2022. We included 40 patients who received left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafting, and additional T-graft with the LIMA itself. The objective was focused on intraoperative and short-term outcomes. Results: A total of 40 patients were treated with the LIMA-LIMA T-graft procedure with a Fowler score calculated at 20.1 ± 3.0. A total of 37.5% of all patients had lacking venous graft material due to prior vein stripping, and 21 patients presented severe vein varicosis. An overall of 2.6 ± 0.5 distal anastomoses (target vessels were left anterior descending, diagonal, intermediate branch, and/or left marginal ramus) were performed, partly sequentially. Mean flow of LIMA-Left anterior descending (LAD) anastomosis was 59.31 ± 11.04 mL/min with a mean PI of 1.21 ± 0.18. Mean flow of subsequent T-Graft accounted for 51.31 ± 3.81 mL/min with a mean PI of 1.39 ± 0.47. Median hospital stay was 6.2 (5.0; 7.5) days. No incidence of postoperative wound healing disorders was observed, and all patients were discharged. There was one 30-day readmission with a diagnosis of pericardial effusion (2.5%). There was no 30-day mortality within the cohort. Conclusions: Patients requiring surgical myocardial revascularization due to complex two-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) can be easily managed with LIMA alone, despite an elevated Fowler score and a promising outcome. A prospective study needs to be conducted, as well as longer term surveillance, to substantiate and benchmark the long-term results, as well as the patency rates.

Keywords: LIMA; OPCAB; total arterial revascularization.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Coronary Artery Bypass / methods
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Mammary Arteries* / transplantation
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.