Sleep Disorders and Coronary Artery Disease

Cardiol Rev. 2023 Jul-Aug;31(4):219-224. doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000478. Epub 2022 Oct 27.

Abstract

A sufficient amount and quality sleep is vital components for maintaining optimal physical wellbeing, cognition, and cardiovascular health. Normal sleep provides us with a low physiological stress that promotes overall cardiovascular health. Sleep disorders are common, and often goes undiagnosed. Patients with sleep disorders, commonly suffer from poor quality of life due to the poor quality of their sleep. They are associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular health, such as coronary artery disease. Sleep disorders discussed in this review article include sleep-disordered breathing (obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea), insomnia and restless leg syndrome. Sleep disorders primarily have four acute adverse cardiovascular consequences. First, intermittent hypoxemia-reoxygenation in arterial blood along with PCO 2 fluctuation; second is excessive arousals; third, decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic tone; fourth being the large pressure swings in the intrathoracic cavity. This review focuses on classifications, and prevalence of the three major classes of sleep disorders, and the evidence to date on the association between these sleep disorders and coronary artery disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Coronary Artery Disease* / complications
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / epidemiology
  • Heart
  • Humans
  • Quality of Life
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes* / diagnosis
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes* / epidemiology
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / complications
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / diagnosis
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / epidemiology