Acta Clin Croat. 2022 Jun;61(Suppl 1):93-98. doi: 10.20471/acc.2022.61.s1.16.


The objective of this case report is to present a patient with acquired methemoglobinemia due to poisoning of an unknown cause. A 55-year-old man was brought to the Emergency Department, University Hospital Center Zagreb, with an unwell appearance, cyanotic, restless, and presented with a quantitative consciousness disorder. An initial assessment showed decreased oxygen saturation (SpO2 85 [%]), while point-of-care arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis assessed normal partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). Severe lactic acidosis with a compensatory drop in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and high rates of methemoglobin were found. Supportive oxygen therapy and crystalloid solutions were administered, which resulted in rapid clinical recovery within 40 minutes of the initial assessment. Clinical recovery was accompanied by normalized ABG test results taken serially. Typical antidotes, methylene blue and vitamin C, were not administered due to rapid clinical improvement. Methemoglobinemia can be congenital (hereditary) or acquired (toxic). Both conditions are rarely seen in emergency departments, nevertheless, they should be approached properly since methemoglobinemia can be a severe, and fatal, condition. Methemoglobinemia symptoms are the results of inadequate oxygen transport. The diagnosis was confirmed by co-oximetry, while three clinical entities suspected methemoglobinemia: refractory hypoxia, "cyanosis-saturation gap" and dark brown blood. This paper reports our patient's clinical presentation, discusses the causes and mechanisms of possible poisoning, and reviews recent guidelines for methemoglobinemia management.

Keywords: lactic acidosis; methemoglobinemia; poisoning.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cyanosis / etiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methemoglobinemia* / chemically induced
  • Methemoglobinemia* / diagnosis
  • Methemoglobinemia* / therapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Oximetry
  • Oxygen / therapeutic use
  • Poisoning* / complications


  • Oxygen