Reconstructive surgery for congenital atresia of the uterine cervix: a systematic review

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2023 Sep;308(3):685-700. doi: 10.1007/s00404-022-06825-5. Epub 2022 Oct 28.


The authors discuss the incidence, the embryological development, the classification, the presentation and the treatment options of this rare reproductive tract abnormality. In the past, the treatment proposed almost unanimously was hysterectomy and subsequent construction, when necessary, of a neovagina. In recent decades, numerous experiences of conservative therapies have accumulated that allow the restoration of menstrual function and in some rare cases even the achievement of a pregnancy. However, complications associated with recanalization of the cervix frequently resulted in the need for repeated surgery, risk of serious and sometimes fatal ascending infection. This review aims to analyze the most recent and significant experiences of conservative surgery in this field to provide an accurate picture of the various techniques and their outcomes, especially from the point of view of fertility. Conservative surgery should now be considered as the first-line treatment option. On the other hand, it is not possible to draw conclusions on the superiority of one technique over another among the various conservative options. This would require large series with adequate follow-up, which unfortunately are not available.

Keywords: Cervical agenesis; Cervico-vaginal atresia; Cervicoplasty; Congenital malformations; Mullerian anomalies; Vaginoplasty.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cervix Uteri / abnormalities
  • Cervix Uteri / surgery
  • Congenital Abnormalities* / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hysterectomy
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures*
  • Pregnancy
  • Surgery, Plastic*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Vagina / surgery