Agrivoltaics: Modeling the relative importance of longwave radiation from solar panels

PLoS One. 2022 Oct 28;17(10):e0273119. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273119. eCollection 2022.


Agrivoltaics, which integrate photovoltaic power production with agriculture in the same plot of land, have the potential to reduce land competition, reduce crop irrigation, and increase solar panel efficiency. To optimize agrivoltaic systems for crop growth, energy pathways must be characterized. While the solar panels shade the crops, they also emit longwave radiation and partially block the ground from downwelling longwave radiation. A deeper understanding of the spatial variation in incoming energy would enable controlled allocation of energy in the design of agrivoltaic systems. The model also demonstrates that longwave energy should not be neglected when considering a full energy balance on the soil under solar panels.

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture*
  • Crops, Agricultural
  • Soil
  • Solar Energy*


  • Soil

Grants and funding

The authors received no specific funding for this work.