Assessment of a high-fidelity, virtual reality-based, manual small-incision cataract surgery simulator: A face and content validity study

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2022 Nov;70(11):4010-4015. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1593_22.


Purpose: To establish the face and content validity of the HelpMeSee Eye Surgery Simulator - a virtual reality-based cataract surgery simulator for manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS).

Methods: The face and content validity were assessed on the sclero-corneal tunnel construction course. A questionnaire with 11 questions focused on the visual realism, with resemblance to real life surgery, and the training value of the simulator was developed. Thirty-five experienced MSICS surgeons participated in the study. Responses were recorded using a seven-point scoring system.

Results: Overall, 74.3% (26/35) of the respondents agreed that the overall visual representation of the eye and the instruments in the simulator were realistic. The task of injecting a visco-elastic through the paracentesis was reported to be the most visually realistic task with a mean score of 5.78 (SD: 1.09; range: 2-7). With regard to content validity, 77.1% (27/35) of the subjects felt agreed that the errors and complications represented throughout the entire tunnel construction module were similar to those encountered in real life; the task of entering the anterior chamber with the keratome had a mean score of 5.54 (SD: 0.98; range 1-7), being rated the highest in that aspect. Overall, 94.3% (33/35) of the subjects agreed that the simulator would be useful in developing hand-eye co-ordination. A similar number of 94.3% (33/35) agreed that based on their experience, they would recommend cataract surgical training on this simulator.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the HelpMeSee Eye Surgery Simulator appears to have sufficient face and content validity for cataract surgical training.

Keywords: Augmented reality; medical education; residency; training; virtual reality.

MeSH terms

  • Cataract Extraction*
  • Cataract*
  • Clinical Competence
  • Humans
  • Ophthalmology* / education
  • Virtual Reality*