We report 6 patients with eosinophilia and atheroembolic renal disease. Histologic examination of biopsy of kidney or skin revealed extensive atheroembolic in the vasculature. However, no evidence of vascular or tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed. Eosinophil count ranged from 540 to 2,000 cells/mm3. Upon review of the literature, 80% (29 out of 36) of patients with adequately reported total and differential leukocyte counts had eosinophilia in association with atheroembolic disease. In contrast, review of the clinical records of 40 consecutive patients with acute renal failure seen during an 18-month period uncovered only 1 case of eosinophilia (2.5%). This latter patient was established as having acute interstitial nephritis. Thus eosinophilia appears to be a helpful diagnostic clue to the presence of atheroembolic renal disease.