Tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy (TPT) is increasingly recognized as the key to eliminating tuberculosis globally and is particularly critical for children with TB infection or who are in close contact with individuals with infectious TB. But many barriers currently impede successful scale-up to provide TPT to those at high risk of TB disease. The cascade of care in TB infection (and the related contact management cascade) is a conceptual framework to evaluate and improve the care of persons who are potential candidates for TPT. This review summarizes recent literature on barriers and solutions in the TB infection care cascade, focusing on children in both high- and low-burden settings, and drawing from studies on children and adults. Identifying and closing gaps in the care cascade will require the implementation of tools that are new (e.g. computer-assisted radiography) and old (e.g. efficient contact tracing), and will be aided by innovative implementation study designs, quality improvement methods, and shared clinical practice with primary care providers.
Keywords: care cascade; latent tuberculosis; pediatric; tuberculosis preventive treatment.
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