This review serves as an update to the previous Nocardia review by Brown-Elliott et al. published in 2006 (B. A. Brown-Elliott, J. M. Brown, P. S. Conville, and R. J. Wallace. Jr., Clin Microbiol Rev 19:259-282, 2006, https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.19.2.259-282.2006). Included is a discussion on the taxonomic expansion of the genus, current identification methods, and the impact of new technology (including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight [MALDI-TOF] and whole genome sequencing) on diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations, the epidemiology, and geographic distribution are briefly discussed. An additional section on actinomycotic mycetoma is added to address this often-neglected disease.
Keywords: Nocardia; aerobic actinomycetes; mycetoma; nocardiosis.