Harefuah. 2022 Oct;161(10):645-651.
[Article in Hebrew]


Optic neuritis is an inflammatory condition of the optic nerve, frequently the first manifestation of a central nervous system disease. While typical optic neuritis is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis, the etiology of atypical optic neuritis varies. The visual and the systemic prognosis, as well as the management depend on the suspected etiology. The understanding and the classification of atypical optic neuritis evolved significantly since the discovery of the anti-aquaporin4 (AQP4) and the anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies as biomarkers and pathologic causes of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and MOG-associated disorder (MOGAD) respectively. Additional causes of optic neuritis include multiple autoimmune and infectious diseases. About one third of optic neuritis cases are idiopathic. Correct and timely diagnosis of the optic neuritis etiology is crucial for proper treatment initiation and for reducing long term visual and systemic disability.

Publication types

  • English Abstract
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aquaporin 4
  • Autoantibodies
  • Humans
  • Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein
  • Neuromyelitis Optica* / diagnosis
  • Neuromyelitis Optica* / therapy
  • Optic Neuritis* / diagnosis
  • Optic Neuritis* / etiology
  • Optic Neuritis* / therapy


  • Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein
  • Aquaporin 4
  • Autoantibodies