Frontoparietal Dysconnection in Covert Bipedal Activity for Enhancing the Performance of the Motor Preparation-Based Brain-Computer Interface

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2023:31:139-149. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2022.3217298. Epub 2023 Jan 30.


Motor-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) were developed from the brain signals during motor imagery (MI), motor preparation (MP), and motor execution (ME). Motor-based BCIs provide an active rehabilitation scheme for post-stroke patients. However, BCI based solely on MP was rarely investigated. Since MP is the precedence phase before MI or ME, MP-BCI could potentially detect brain commands at an earlier state. This study proposes a bipedal MP-BCI system, which is actuated by the reduction in frontoparietal connectivity strength. Three substudies, including bipedal classification, neurofeedback, and post-stroke analysis, were performed to validate the performance of our proposed model. In bipedal classification, functional connectivity was extracted by Pearson's correlation model from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded while the subjects were performing MP and MI. The binary classification of MP achieved short-lived peak accuracy of 73.73(±7.99)% around 200-400 ms post-cue. The peak accuracy was found synchronized to the MP-related potential and the decrement in frontoparietal connection strength. The connection strengths of the right frontal and left parietal lobes in the alpha range were found negatively correlated to the classification accuracy. In the subjective neurofeedback study, the majority of subjects reported that motor preparation instead of the motor imagery activated the frontoparietal dysconnection. Post-stroke study also showed that patients exhibit lower frontoparietal connections compared to healthy subjects during both MP and ME phases. These findings suggest that MP reduced alpha band functional frontoparietal connectivity and the EEG signatures of left and right foot MP could be discriminated more effectively during this phase. A neurofeedback paradigm based on the frontoparietal network could also be utilized to evaluate post-stroke rehabilitation training.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain-Computer Interfaces*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Evoked Potentials
  • Humans
  • Imagination
  • Neurofeedback*
  • Stroke*