Early-onset sepsis (EOS) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among newborn infants, particularly among those born premature. The epidemiology of EOS is changing over time. Here, we highlight the most contemporary data informing the epidemiology of neonatal EOS, including incidence, microbiology, risk factors, and associated outcomes, with a focus on infants born in high-income countries during their birth hospitalization. We discuss approaches to risk assessment for EOS, summarizing national guidelines and comparing key differences between approaches for term and preterm infants. Lastly, we analyze contemporary antibiotic resistance data for EOS pathogens to inform optimal empiric treatment for EOS.
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