Innovative binary sorption of Cobalt(II) and methylene blue by Sargassum latifolium using Taguchi and hybrid artificial neural network paradigms

Sci Rep. 2022 Oct 31;12(1):18291. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-22662-7.


The present investigation has been designed by Taguchi and hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) paradigms to improve and optimize the binary sorption of Cobalt(II) and methylene blue (MB) from an aqueous solution, depending on modifying physicochemical conditions to generate an appropriate constitution for a highly efficient biosorption by the alga; Sargassum latifolium. Concerning Taguchi's design, the predicted values of the two responses were comparable to actual ones. The biosorption of Cobalt(II) ions was more efficient than MB, the supreme biosorption of Cobalt(II) was verified in run L21 (93.28%), with the highest S/N ratio being 39.40. The highest biosorption of MB was reached in run L22 (74.04%), with a S/N ratio of 37.39. The R2 and adjusted R2 were in reasonable values, indicating the validity of the model. The hybrid ANN model has exclusively emerged herein to optimize the biosorption of both Cobalt(II) and MB simultaneously, therefore, the ANN model was better than the Taguchi design. The predicted values of Cobalt(II) and MB biosorption were more obedience to the ANN model. The SEM analysis of the surface of S. latifolium showed mosaic form with massive particles, as crosslinking of biomolecules of the algal surface in the presence of Cobalt(II) and MB. Viewing FTIR analysis showed active groups e.g., hydroxyl, α, β-unsaturated ester, α, β-unsaturated ketone, N-O, and aromatic amine. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports deeming the binary sorption of Cobalt(II) and MB ions by S. latifolium during Taguchi orthogonal arrays and hybrid ANN.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Cobalt
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Ions
  • Kinetics
  • Methylene Blue / chemistry
  • Neural Networks, Computer
  • Sargassum* / chemistry
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical* / chemistry


  • Methylene Blue
  • Cobalt
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Ions