Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) induces coronary arteritis, which causes subsequent coronary aneurysms, and contributes to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the differences regarding real-world treatment selection and mortality between AMI-complicated KD and AMI due to typical atherosclerosis (AMI-non KD) are unknown.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the current treatment strategy and prognosis of AMI-complicated KD compared with AMI due to typical atherosclerosis.
Method: We used data from 2012 to 2019 from a nationwide claim database, the Japanese Registry of All Cardiac and Vascular Diseases-Diagnosis Procedure Combination.
Results: Compared to the AMI-non KD patients (n = 70,227), the AMI-complicated KD patients (n = 73): (1) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) less often and more coronary artery bypass grafting, intracoronary thrombolysis or intravenous coronary thrombolysis more often; (2) underwent stentless PCI using old balloon angioplasty or rotablator, when they underwent PCI; and (3) needed in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation and intensive mechanical therapy such as intra-aortic balloon pump, percutaneous cardiopulmonary support or a respirator. Both the AMI-non KD and AMI-complicated KD patients had similar in-hospital mortality rates.
Conclusions: Compared with AMI-non KD patients, AMI-complicated KD patients underwent non-PCI strategies such as bypass surgery or thrombolysis, and required intensive therapy with mechanical supports more often, but presented similar in-hospital mortality. When the AMI-complicated KD patients underwent PCI, stentless PCI using balloon angioplasty or rotablator was performed more often compared with the AMI-non KD patients.
Keywords: Kawasaki disease; acute myocardial infarction.
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