Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis: 2022 recommendations from the French multiple sclerosis society

Mult Scler. 2023 Jan;29(1):11-36. doi: 10.1177/13524585221129472. Epub 2022 Nov 1.


Objective: The objective of this study was to develop evidence-based recommendations on pregnancy management for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Background: MS typically affects young women in their childbearing years. Increasing evidence is available to inform questions raised by MS patients and health professionals about pregnancy issues.

Methods: The French Group for Recommendations in Multiple Sclerosis (France4MS) reviewed PubMed and university databases (January 1975 through June 2021). The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was developed to synthesise the scientific literature and expert opinions on healthcare topics; it was used to reach a formal agreement. Fifty-six MS experts worked on the full-text review and initial wording of recommendations. A group of 62 multidisciplinary healthcare specialists validated the final proposal of summarised evidence.

Results: A strong agreement was reached for all 104 proposed recommendations. They cover diverse topics, such as pregnancy planning, follow-up during pregnancy and postpartum, delivery routes, locoregional analgesia or anaesthesia, prevention of postpartum relapses, breastfeeding, vaccinations, reproductive assistance, management of relapses and disease-modifying treatments.

Conclusion: The 2022 recommendations of the French MS society should be helpful to harmonise counselling and treatment practice for pregnancy in persons with MS, allowing for better and individualised choices.

Keywords: Multiple sclerosis; breastfeeding; disease-modifying treatments; pregnancy; reproductive assistance.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Multiple Sclerosis* / therapy
  • Postpartum Period
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications* / therapy
  • Recurrence
  • Vaccination